Beyond the Looking Glass: Learning to See by Threading Health Humanities in the Curriculum

Purpose

All healthcare professionals, including physical therapists (PTs), encounter human suffering in their everyday practice as healers. Human suffering can raise fundamental questions related to health, wellness, illness, disability, life or death, and grieving. These questions challenge practitioners who have been educated on behavioral objectives based on traditional cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains of learning1 to provide adequate and compassionate care for their patients and families. To make situations more challenging, PTs may encounter ethical dilemmas when dealing with patient-practitioner interactions within the healthcare system.2 Physical therapists need to respond properly to situations involving ethical issues as well as manage the distress characterized by human suffering. Traditional classroom environments where the skills and science of physical therapy are taught often fall short in pedagogy to engage students in the three domains of learning (cognitive, affective, psychomotor) within the clinical context.3 Students may cognitively understand how to physically respond to difficult situations but the deeper connection to the heart of distress and how to respond, often cannot be taught through traditional pedagogical processes. The purpose of this presentation is to explore possibilities for threading health humanities through the curriculum in a DPT or PTA program.

Methods and/or Description of Project

The health humanities (HH) provide tools which help students develop the ability to communicate about difficult topics. Students learn skills for nurturing observation, creativity, imagination, intuition, empathy, and self-reflection when engaging in HH. These skills are also crucial to holistic practice in healthcare.4-19 This presentation examines the influence of health humanities via cinematography, books, visual and performance arts on professional beliefs of DPT students. Several strategies for threading the HH through a curriculum will be discussed.

Results/Outcomes

After engaging with HH, students were able to articulate strategies for working with patients facing difficult situations. Students reported being more creative in patient care planning after engaging in health humanities. Finally, a calling to the profession of physical therapy was reinforced among the students through exposure to the HH.

Conclusions/Relevance to the conference theme: Through the Looking Glass: Transforming Physical Therapy Education

Incorporating HH in educational programs may provide a means to better understand human suffering and teach students strategies of a caring profession in the affective domain of learning.

References

References

1. Bloom BS, Engelhart MD, Furst EJ, Hill WH, Krathwohl DR. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co. Inc.; 1956.

2. Davis CM, Musolino GM. Patient Practitioner Interaction: An Experiential Manual for Developing the Art of Health Care. 6th Ed. Thorofare, NJ: Slack Incorporated; 2016.

3. Prober CG. Heath C. Lecture halls without lectures – A proposal for medical education. The New England Journal of Medicine. May 6, 2012; 366(18):1657-1659. http://arabic.hadassah-med.com/media/1904201/LectureHallsWithoutLecturesAProposalforMedicalEduc.pdf. Published May 3, 2012. Accessed May 14, 2016.

4. Anthony ML, Templin MA. Nursing faculty teaching in the general education sequence: the value of liberal arts as a component of professional nursing practice. Journal of Nursing Education. 1998;37(7):321-323. No doi.

5. Domholdt E. 2007 Pauline Cerasoli Lecture: Sins of the Professional Programs. Journal of Physical Therapy Education. 2007;21(2):4-9. No doi.

6. Evans M. Reflections on the humanities in medical education. Medical Education. 2002;36:508-513. No doi.

7. Girardeau RP. DOMAIN3 Do the liberal arts belong in EMS education? Educator Update. July 2012;16-19. http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/77665155/do-liberal-arts-belong-ems-education. Published 2012. Accessed May 15, 2016.

8. Kirklin D, Duncan J, McBride S, Hunt S, Griffin M. A cluster design controlled trial of arts-based observational skills training in primary care. Medical Education. 2007;41:395-401. doi.10.1111/j.1365.2929.2007.02711.x.

9. Lepicard E, Fridman K. Medicine, cinema, and culture: A workshop in medical humanities for clinical years. Medical Education. 2003;37:1039-1040. No doi.

10. Macnaughton J. ‘Arts and humanities’: a new section in Medical Education. Editorial. Medical Education. 2002;36:106-107. No doi.

11. Middleton J, Drucquer M. Arts and medicine in postgraduate medical education. Teaching Exchange. 2006;621-625. No doi.

12. Perakis CR. A humanities orientation to physical diagnosis. Medical Education. 2003;37:1038-1039. No doi.

13. Pierce ER. The liberal arts connection (career education, career skills, professional competence). The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. April 1984;38(4):237-244. No doi.

14. Rabow MW. Drawing on experience: physician artwork in a course on professional development. Medical Education. 2003;37:1040-41. No doi.

15. Smith S, Molineux M, Rowe N, Larkinson L. Integrating medical humanities into physiotherapy and occupational therapy education. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation. September 2006;13(9):421-427. No doi.

16. Whitham R, Rose E, Cain R. Arts-based learning: is it worthwhile? Medical Education. 2012;(46)436-437. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04200.x.

17. Yerksa EJ. Liberal arts: the foundation of occupational therapy education. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 1986;40(3):153-159. No doi.

18. Hurwitz B. Medicine, the arts and humanities. Clinical Medicine. 2003;3:497-8. No doi.

19. Jones T. Wear D, Friedman LD. Health Humanities Reader. Rutgers University Press; 2014.

20. American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). New Vision of the Physical Therapy Profession Adopted. June 27, 2013. http://www.apta.org/PTinMotion/NewsNow/2013/6/27/NewVision/. Published June 27, 2013. Accessed July 29, 2016.

21. American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). Vision Statement for the Physical Therapy profession and Guiding Principles to Achieve the Vision. http://www.apta.org/Vision/. Published 9/9/2015. Accessed July 29, 2016.

22. Chomsky N. Language and Mind. New York: New York University; 1972.

23. Porter R. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind. London: Harper Collins; 1997.

24. van Manen M. Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. 2nd ed. London, Canada: Althouse Press; 1997.

25.Thomas SP, Pollio HR. Listening to patients: A Phenomenological Approach to Nursing Research and Practice. New York, New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2002.

26. Dahlberg K, Drew N, Nyström M. Reflective Lifeworld Research. Lund, Sweden: Studentlitteratur; 2001.

27. Giorgi, A. An application of phenomenological method in psychology. In: Giorgi A, Fischer CT, Murray EL, ed. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology. Vol. 2. Pittsburgh PA: Duquesne University Press; 1975:235-260.

28. Giorgi, A. The theory, practice and evaluation of the phenomenological method as a qualitative research procedure. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology. 1997;28:235-260. No doi.

29. World Health Organization (WHO). International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. http://www.who.int/classifications/icf/en/. Published May 22, 2001. Accessed July 29, 2016.

30. McClelland J. Sending children to kindergarten: A phenomenological study of mothers’ experiences. Family Relations. 1995;44(2):177-183.

31. Polkinghorne D. Generalizations and qualitative research: Issues of external validity. In: Linden J, Szytek P. eds. Validation of Knowledge Claims in Human Science. Lyon: L’Interdisciplinaire; 2003:121-163.

32. Merleau-Ponty M. Phenomenology of Perception. New York, NY: Routledge Classics; 1958.

33. Singhal A. Uncovering innovations that are invisible in plain sight. Kappanmagazine.org November 2013. 95(3):28-33. http://utminers.utep.edu/asinghal/Singhal-2013-Kappan-Uncovering%20Innovations%20that%20are%20invisible%20in%20plain%20sight.pdf. Accessed February 28, 2017.

34. Farley-Ripple E & Buttram J. Harnessing the power of teacher network. Kappanmagazine.org November 2013. 95(3):12-15. http://www.kappanmagazine.org/content/95/3.toc. Accessed February 28, 2017.

35. Klappa SG, Alles YB, Klappa SP. Professionalism Unveiled in DPT Student Monologues. Journal of Novel Physiotherapies. 2016; 6(5):308. DOI: 10.4172/2165-7025.1000308.

36. Klappa SG, Alles YB, Klappa SP. DPT program stages an art show: Using art to develop a heart for the profession of physical therapy. The Journal of Humanities in Rehabilitation. March 8, 2017.

37. Spreitzer GM, Sonenshein S. Toward the construct definition of positive deviance. Am Behav Sci. 2004;47(6):828-847.

38. Gawande A. Better. New York: Picador; 2007.

Course Objectives

Objectives: At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to:
1. Define health humanities.
2. Describe how health humanities may help students develop skills for building a therapeutic alliance with patients.
3. Review strategies for utilizing health humanities for teaching and learning in the affective domain in a DPT or PTA program.
4. Design strategies for threading health humanities though a DPT or PTA curriculum.1.

Instructional Methods

We will utilize lecture, discussion, case studies, and health humanities in the presentation.

Tentative Outline/Schedule

Outline:
I. Introduction of Health Humanities (30 minutes)
II. Health Humanities Strategies used in a DPT Program (30 Minutes)
a. Weaving Visual & Performing Arts through the Curriculum
b. Books, Film, & Cinematography: From EBP to Geriatrics
III. Connecting Health Humanities to Student Outcomes - Drawing on the Affective Domain (15 minutes)
IV. Case Study & Discussion (15 minutes)

BACK to Abstract Results

  • Control #: 2752402
  • Type: Educational Session
  • Event/Year: ELC2017
  • Authors: Dr. Susan Klappa, Eric Strong
  • Keywords:

BACK to Abstract Results